免责声明：文章内容由小编整理编辑，部分图文分享自互联网，如有侵权请微信告知处理第二种：大麦茶，消积益气打开全民小视频appthe state specially happy, but the state itself? Everyone is to give to all the others whatever he is able to produce for the society. For it made these men so, not to please themselves but, to unite the commonwealth. G: I see. I was overlooking that. S: But note, Glaucon, there will be no wrong done to the philosophers in this. We have just arguments to give them when we force them to become guardians. We will say to them, “It is natural that in other states men of your quality do not take part in the common work. For in these states such men come into being of their own sweet will and without the will of the government. Teachers of themselves, they have no cause to feel in debt to the state for an education they were never given. But you we begot to be rulers of yourselves and of the state. You have had a better and more complete education than any of the others; so down you go into the cave with the rest to get used to seeing in the dark. For then you will see far better than they do what these images are, and what they are of, for you have seen what the beautiful, the just and the good truly are.” So our state will be ruled by minds which are awake, and not as now by men in a dream fighting with one another over shadows and for the power and office which in their eyes are the great good. Truly that state is best and most quietly ruled where the rulers have least desire to be such, and the state with the opposite sort of rulers is the worst. And will you name any other sort of man than a philosopher who looks down on political office? G: By Zeus, no. S: And now let us see how this sort of ruler is to be produced, and what sort of work will turn the mind from that which changes to that which is, turn it round from a day little better than night to the true daylight in the ascent we say is true philosophy. G: Certainly. S: Keep in mind that our guardians have to be ready to take command in war. There were two parts in our education. Gymnastic had to do with the growth and decay of the body and so with coming to be and passing away. And that is not the sort of knowledge we are after. But what do you say of music which was, in a way, the other part? G: Music was a parallel to gymnastic and trained the guardians through forming their ways of living, giving them harmony and rhythm, but no science. There was nothing leading to the sort of good you are looking for now. S: Your memory is right. There was nothing in music of that sort. But what branch of knowledge is there, dear Glaucon, of the sort we desire? For all the useful arts in our opinion are low. G: Undoubtedly. But if music and gymnastic are out, and the arts are as well, what have we? S: We will have to take something which is not special but has to do with everything. Something which all arts and sciences and all forms of thought use. Something which everyone has to have among the first steps of his education. G: And what may that be? S: The simple business of knowing about one and two and three; in a word, number and arithmetic. Don‘t all the arts and sciences make use of them? Is not this the sort of science we are looking for, which naturally takes us on into thought? But it has never been rightly used. Its true value is its attraction of thought towards being. G: Please make that clearer.